Basics of Civil Engineering. Civil engineering is a professional engineering that is brief discussion

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways. 

 Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a broad profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environmental science, mechanics, project management, and other fields.

The various disciplines of civil engineering are

An art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs such as social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play or relax, thus bringing about the social and economic well-being for the majority of mankind is known as town planning .

To create and promote healthy conditions and environments for all the people.
(1). To make right use of the land for the right purpose by zoning
(2)To ensure orderly development
(3) To avoid encroachment of one zone over the other.
All the building structures are composed of various types of materials. These materials are either referred to as building materials or materials of construction. A builder, perhaps an architect or engineer, or a contractor needs to become familiar totally with these building materials.These are some of the most commonly used building materials -
No Materials No Materials
1 Stones 7 Sand
2 Brick 8 Mortar
3 Glass 9 Concrete
4 Ceramics 10 Timber
5 Cement 11 Metals
6 Miscellaneous Building 12 etc

Used building materials photo -


It focuses on the knowledge and skills required for the planning, coordination and successful implementation of large Projects such as design and construction of structures and buildings, ship structures, aircraft, dams, roads, and bridges etc. It is a fusion of engineering and management.

       This field is concerned with the study of the necessary methods and techniques of environment protection as well as the availability of the basic life elements such as water and air with a specific level of quality to protect the mankind health and environment. 
     This includes design and construction of water distribution networks, wastewater and storm water collection systems, water treatment plants and wastewater treatment for reuse in industrial and agricultural fields. 
      Environmental engineering involves also the study of the different techniques of controlling air, water and soil pollution as well as the proper disposal or recycle of solid and hazardous wastes. 

>This field is concerned with the study of the soil properties of the construction site and its bearing capacity. 
> Geotechnical engineering is concerned also with the suitable solutions for any problem in the soil as well as the choice of the best and secured methods of design and construction of the foundation of engineering structures. 

This field covers the basic concepts of water science and its related theorems and applications. This includes the methods of transporting water from sources to distribution sites through channels and pipelines, water sources and storage system, types of dams and their design methods. 
 (1). It involves also the study of seawater movements and shore protection. ` 7
 (2).Hydraulic engineering consists of the application of fluid mechanics to water flowing in an isolated environment (pipe, pump) or in an open channel (river, lake, ocean). 

Remote sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance (typically from satellite or aircraft). Some specific uses of remotely sensed images of the Earth include:
(1). Large forest fires can be mapped from space, allowing rangers to see a much larger area than from the ground. 
(2)Tracking clouds to help predict the weather or watching erupting volcanoes, and help watching for dust storms. 
(3)Tracking the growth of a city and changes in farmland or forests over several years or decades.
(4) Discovery and mapping of the rugged topography of the ocean floor (e.g., huge mountain ranges, deep canyons, and the “magnetic striping” on the ocean floor).

 This discipline deals with the analysis and design of concrete and steel structures, such as multi-story buildings, bridges, towers....etc. It deals also with the study of the durability and resistibility of such structures for live loads, wind and earthquake. 
 The study involves also the study of the properties of building materials according to the international specifications. 

Surveying typically involves measurements of horizontal and vertical distances between points. It also includes descriptions of the exact characteristics of the land structure and surface. A surveying engineer also works to: 
 provide the proper design and development of infrastructure 
 protect the surrounding natural environment 
 maximize the efficiency of the proposed structures


Transportation engineering is a branch of civil engineering that involves the planning, design, operation, and maintenance of transportation systems to help build smart, safe, and liveable communities. Any system that moves people and goods from one place to another falls under the scope of transportation engineering, which includes: 

 Highways and roadways 

 Railways  Oil pipelines 

 Public transport systems 

 Traffic control systems 

 Automated transport systems 

 Space transport systems


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